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Circuit Bending


Circuit Bending

Share your circuit bending projects, plans, videos, photos, information etc. What electronic items have you modified to make new musical instruments

Members: 43
Latest Activity: Jun 13, 2022

Wikipedia: Circuit Bending

Circuit bending is the creative customization of the circuits within electronic devices such as low voltage, battery-powered guitar effects, children's toys and small digital synthesizers to create new musical or visual instruments and sound generators.

Emphasizing spontaneity and randomness, the techniques of circuit bending have been commonly associated with noise music, though many more conventional contemporary musicians and musical groups have been known to experiment with "bent" instruments. Circuit bending usually involves dismantling the machine and adding components such as switches and potentiometers that alter the circuit.


Experimental process

The circuit bending process has been developed largely by individuals with next to no formalised training in electronic theory and circuit design, experimenting with second-hand electronics in a DIY fashion, either with inexpensive keyboards or drum machines, or with electronic children's toys not associated with musical production. Haphazard shorting out of electronic items will almost inevitably at some time lead to the destruction of the circuit being prodded about. Worse still, it could present risk of fire, burning or electrocution.

Aesthetic value, immediate usability and highly randomized results are often factors in the process of successfully bending electronics. Although the history of electronic music is often associated with unconventional sonic results, such innovators as Robert Moog and Léon Theremin were electrical engineers, and more concerned with the consistency and sound design of their instruments. Circuit bending is typified by inconsistencies in the instruments built in an unscientific manner. While many pre-fitted circuit bent machines are on offer for sale at auction sites such as eBay, this somewhat contravenes the intention of most practitioners. Machines bent to a repeated configuration are more analogous to the well known practice of "mods", such as the Devilfish mod for the Roland TB-303, or various Analogman or Pedaldoc guitar pedal circuit modifications.

Circuit bending an audio device typically involves removing the rear panel of the device and connecting any two circuit locations with a "jumper" wire, sending current from one part of the circuit into another. Results are monitored through either the device's internal speaker or by connecting an amplifier to the speaker output. If an interesting effect is achieved, this connection would be marked for future reference or kept active by either soldering a new connection or bridging it with crocodile clips. Often other components are inserted at these points such as pushbuttons or switches, to turn the effect on or off; or components such as resistors orcapacitors, to change the quality of the audio output. This is repeated in a trial and error basis. Other components added into the circuit can give the performer more expressiveness, such as potentiometers,photoresistors (for reaction to light) and pressure sensors. The simplest input, and the one most identified with circuit bending, is the body contact,[1] where the performer's touch causes the circuit to change the sound. Often metal knobs, plates, screws or studs are wired to these circuit points to give an easier access to these points from the outside the case of the device.

Since creative experimentation is key element to the practice of circuit bending, there is always a possibility that short circuiting may yield undesirable results, including component failure. In particular, connecting the power supply or a capacitor directly to a computer chip lead can destroy the chip and make the device inoperable. Before beginning to do circuit bending, a person should learn the basic risk factors about working with electrical and electronic products, including how to identify capacitors (which can give a person a serious shock due to the electrical charge that they store), and how to avoid risks with AC power. For safety reasons, a circuit bender should have a few basic electronics tools, such as a multimeter (an electronic testing device which measures voltage, resistance and other factors). It is advised that beginner circuit benders should never"bend" any device that gets its power from mains electricity (household AC power), as this would carry a serious risk of electrocution.


While often viewed as simply a method of creating sounds not intended by the manufacturers, some see circuit bending as a more spiritual process. In the popular video "What is Circuit Bending?" artists describe circuit bending as "parallel worlds within a circuit that aren't supposed to exist, but they're there," "it's more control over our chaos. Which is what it's about," "an explosive psychedelic surreal world of sound." These insights suggest that there are hidden sounds within a circuit, hidden potential, and the purpose of circuit bending is to explore this unseen world and unlock the potential of a device by experimentation.[2]


Although similar methods were previously used by other musicians and engineers, this method of music creation is believed to have been pioneered by Reed Ghazala in the 1960s. Ghazala's experience with circuit-bending began in 1966 when a toy transistor amplifier, by chance, shorted-out against a metal object in his desk drawer, resulting in a stream of unusual sounds.[3] While Ghazala explicitly makes no claims as to be the first circuit bender, he coined the term Circuit Bending [4] and whole-heartedly promoted the proliferation of the concept and practice through his writings and internet site, earning him the title "Father of Circuit Bending".

Serge Tcherepnin, designer of the Serge modular synthesizers, discussed[5] his early experiments in the 1950s with the transistor radio, in which he found sensitive circuit points in those simple electronic devices and brought them out to "body contacts" on the plastic chassis. Prior to Mark's and Reed's experiments other pioneers also explored the body-contact idea, one of the earliest being Thaddeus Cahill (1897) whosetelharmonium, it is reported, was also touch-sensitive.

Since 1984, Swiss duo Voice Crack created music by manipulating common electronic devices in a practice they termed "cracked everyday electronics." [6]

In 2009, circuit bending rock band CMKT 4 began touring America teaching workshops on circuit bending and DIY electronics. [7]


Artists who created and used circuit bent instruments were featured on a compilation CD entitled "Noise and Toys Volume 1," which was officially released in 2006 on We Are Records. Many varied musical intentions are apparent in this collection, but there is an almost physical tie binding these compositions. Tiger Claw Records (Madison, Wisconsin), specializing in circuit bending artists released many compilations, EPs and albums in 2006 - 2009. Absurdity.Biz has been making video documentation of Circuit Bending since 2003. Currently they have released six DVDs of Bent Festival 2004 - 2009. A full fledged documentary continues to be in the works.

See also


  1. ^ Reed Ghazalahttp://www.anti-theory.com/soundart/circuitbend/cb14.html
  2. ^ DrRek: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=w6Pbyg_kcEk
  3. ^ Reed GhazalaCircuit-Bending, Build Your Own Alien InstrumentsExtreme Tech, 2006
  4. ^ Reed Ghazala: "Circuit-Bending and Living Instruments," EMI Volume VIII #1, 1992
  5. ^ Vail, Mark: Vintage Synthesizers: Pioneering Designers, Groundbreaking Instruments, Collecting Tips, Mutants of Technology, Backbeat Books; 2.00 edition (March 15, 2000)
  6. ^ [1]
  7. ^ [2]

External links

Discussion Forum

You want options? Okay, here you go….

Started by BrianQ. Jun 13, 2022. 0 Replies

Switch between 2 different tones with this simple mod.A must for Pickups wired direct to Output. (Click on image to enlarge)…Continue

Simple PreAmp

Started by BrianQ.. Last reply by Ted Crocker Apr 23, 2020. 1 Reply

Here is a very simple PreAmp. Which anyone can build. You can use any N-channel JFET, even a MOSFET if you’re looking to experiment. It has a small footprint, so you can put it into just about any…Continue

New to Bending - Any Advice?

Started by Red Hot Sep 9, 2019. 0 Replies

Love the concept of circuit bending, but have never done it. Any advice for a novice? How did YOU start?Continue

Simple Overdrive

Started by BrianQ.. Last reply by BrianQ. Dec 2, 2018. 2 Replies

This is similar to the Distortion +/ DOD 250 minus Gain control &…Continue

Comment Wall


You need to be a member of Circuit Bending to add comments!

Comment by BrianQ. on June 18, 2020 at 3:16am

Comment by smojo on October 22, 2011 at 4:25am
thanks Ted - they're great fun to mess around with, got some more projects in the pipeline I'll be posting soon.
Comment by Ted Crocker on October 18, 2011 at 5:00pm
Awesome work Smojo.  I gotta make me something someday.
Comment by smojo on October 18, 2011 at 2:01pm

Here's a link to a vid showing you one of my "pseudo-theremin" oscillators. It has a single oscillator and two light dependent resistors which control the pitch and volume. Tinqui8 bought this from me at the 2011 UK boxfest. Circuit inpsired by Nic Collins Handmade Electronic Music book.



Comment by smojo on August 11, 2011 at 9:53am
Just finished a Speak N Learn bent machine. A bit more tricky than the other musical toys which are mainly just pitch bends. You can create a short loop of speech which is kinda like taking a thin slice and looping it back. Get some pretty weird sounds. I'll try post some vid of it when I get time soon.
Comment by smojo on July 12, 2011 at 2:05pm

So at last I can post on youtube again and I've done some quick demos of my drone machine/oscillator thingy. It houses two different hex inverter driven oscillators and I can swicth between one set-up or the other. Sounds great when hooked up to an FX pedal and a decent amp.

The Pulsillator Part 1 http://youtu.be/VbJHC_sIB_4



The Pulsillator Part 2 http://youtu.be/r6VDFzJaH-Y


The Pulsillator Part 3 http://youtu.be/_yBEssuftxE


Comment by smojo on July 8, 2011 at 10:27am

OK folks, hope you're still with us. Got my Youtube working at last and been busy bending some more toys. So as soon as I get chance to video some of it I'll post some on here - don't go away!


Also found a circuit bending website based in the UK. Here's the link if you're interested in checking it out.


circuitbenders uk

Comment by smojo on June 4, 2011 at 4:25am

My daughter bought me three toys to bend on Ebay for my birthday. Speak n Spell, Maths and Read. Been messing with the Read toy and getting some cool effects. Also I've finished my Nand oscillator box. I wanted to do some video to show you but Youtube has started playing up again on my PC. Suddenly it started taking forever to load the page then when it does it's like a bank whit screen with a few small buttons and thumbnails. Tried updating flash player and Java but no better. Read somewhere it's to do with their style sheet not loading but why and how you fix it I've no idea. As soon as I can get it working I'll do some vids of the new stuff.

Comment by smojo on March 17, 2011 at 8:48am
On the subject of Nic Collins book (nope I'm not getting commission on sales - it's just such a damn good book) - I'm presently experimenting with his design for cascading NAND gate oscillators. Getting some really nice pulsating synth type sounds. Hopefully I'll post a demo soon.
Comment by smojo on March 17, 2011 at 8:46am

Just uploaded a video demo of a simple tremolo box I made. It was based on a design by Nicolas Collins from his excellent book Hnadmade Electronic Music. Not exactly circuit bending in the traditional sense (whatever that may be) but it qualifies due to the components being originally desgined for digital/logic applications. The effects are subtle but pleasing. I think it could be nice hooked up to other electronic devices. As he demonstrates on the Video that you get with the book, it can be used to interesting effect when placed between a CD player headphone socket and an amp. Here's a link to Youtube or view it on my page.

tremolo box


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